- Those who are in their search for employment are self-employed. No one pays them for looking for a job; they are their own employers. Employment candidates are self-employed as well.
- Similarly, when an entrepreneur starts a new business that doesn't make any money yet, he or she needs to volunteer.
- Volunteers work willingly without being forced and being paid. For instance, many CNM volunteers work without any pay because they want to help other people in career transitions. People volunteer because of many reasons.
- Some volunteering is cause-based. For instance, one can volunteer for a political candidate because he or she believes that this politician will make the public life better.
- Skills-based volunteering can be undertaken to build one's work-related competence. Network-building volunteering can be a tool to build one's social network.
- In the United States, volunteers usually work (a) for themselves as self-employed, (b) for non-profit organizations like volunteers of the CNM Cyber Team or, (c) formally being students, as unpaid interns to learn on the job.