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Stakeholder is anyone in the enterprise environment that is, can be, or perceives him-, her-, or itself to be affected by an enterprise's decisions and actions. In Agile methodology, a stakeholder is anyone outside the team who has an interest in the product that the team is producing.


According to the BABOK Guide (3rd edition),

Stakeholder. A group or individual with a relationship to the change, the need, or the solution.

According to the INCOSE Systems Engineering Handbook (4th edition),

Stakeholder. A party having a right, share, or claim in a system or in its possession of characteristics that meet that party’s needs and expectations.

According to the HRBoK Guide,

Stakeholder. An interest holder in an organization. A person, group, or organization that has a direct or indirect interest in the organization (for example, owners, investors, employees, suppliers, unions, or the community).

According to the ITIL Foundation 4e by Axelos,

Stakeholder. A person or organization that has an interest or involvement in an organization, product, service, practice, or other entity.


  1. External stakeholder. A stakeholder who indirectly contributes and/or may contribute to business and/or management processes of an enterprise, as well as uses its outcomes.
  2. Internal stakeholder. A stakeholder who directly contributes to business and/or management processes of an enterprise.

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